History

There is a depiction of a hockey-like game from 200 BC in Ancient Greece when the game may have been called
("keretizein") because it was played with a horn ("?????" in Greek) and a ball-like object.[3] In East Asia, a similar game was entertained, using a carved wooden stick and ball prior to 300 BC. In Inner Mongolia, China, the Daur people have been playing Beikou a game with some similarities to field hockey for about 1,000 years.[4] The word 'hockey' itself was recorded in 1363 when Edward III of England issued the proclamation: "[M]oreover we ordain that you prohibit under penalty of imprisonment all and sundry from such stone, wood and iron throwing; handball, football, or hockey; coursing and cock-fighting, or other such idle games."[5] The modern game grew from English public schools in the early 19th century. The first club was in 1849 at Blackheath in south-east London, but the modern rules grew out of a version played by Middlesex cricket clubs for winter sport[citation needed]. Teddington Hockey Club formed the modern game by introducing the striking circle and changing the ball to a sphere from a rubber cube.[6] The Hockey Association was founded in 1886. The first international took place in 1895 (Ireland 3, Wales 0) and the International Rules Board was founded in 1900. Field hockey was played at the Summer Olympics in 1908 and 1920. It was dropped in 1924, leading to the foundation of the Federation Internationale de Hockey sur Gazon (FIH) as an international governing body by seven continental European nations, and hockey was reinstated in 1928. Men's hockey united under the FIH in 1970. The two oldest trophies are the Irish Senior Cup, which 1st XI teams compete for, and the Irish Junior Cup[citation needed]. In India, the Beighton Cup and the Aga Khan tournament commenced within ten years. Entering the Olympics in 1928, India won all five games without conceding a goal and won from 1932 until 1956 and then in 1964 and 1980. Pakistan won in 1960, 1968 and 1984. In the early 1970s artificial turf began to be used. Synthetic pitches changed most aspects of field hockey, gaining speed. New tactics and techniques such as the Indian dribble developed, followed by new rules to take account. The switch to synthetic surfaces ended Indian and Pakistani domination because artificial turf was too expensive—in comparison to the wealthier European countries—and since the 1970s Australia, The Netherlands and Germany have dominated at the Olympics. Women's field hockey was first played at British universities and schools, and the first club, Molesey Ladies, was founded in 1887[citation needed]. The first national association was the Irish Ladies Hockey Union in 1894[citation needed], and though rebuffed by the Hockey Association, women's field hockey grew rapidly around the world. This led to the International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations (IFWHA) in 1927, though this did not include many continental European countries where women played as sections of men's associations and were affiliated to the FIH. The IFWHA held conferences every three years, and tournaments associated with these were the primary IFWHA competitions. These tournaments were non-competitive until 1975. By the early 1970s there were 22 associations with women's sections in the FIH and 36 associations in the IFWHA. Discussions started about a common rule book. The FIH introduced competitive tournaments in 1974, forcing the acceptance of the principle of competitive field hockey by the IFWHA in 1973. It took until 1982 for the two bodies to merge, but this allowed the introduction of women's field hockey to the Olympic games from 1980 where, as in the men's game, The Netherlands, Germany, and Australia have been consistently strong. Argentina has emerged as a team to be reckoned with since 2000, winning the world championship in 2002 and 2010 and medals at the last three Olympics. Outside North America, participation is now fairly evenly balanced between men and women. For example, in England, the England Hockey reports that as of the 2008–09 season there were 2488 registered men's teams, 1969 women's teams, 1042 boys' teams, 966 girls' teams and 274 mixed teams.[7] In 2006 the Irish Hockey Association reported that the gender split among its players was approximately 65% female and 35% male.[8] In its 2008 census, Hockey Australia reported 40,534 male club players and 41,542 female.[9] However, in the United States of America, there are few field hockey clubs, most play taking place between high school or college sides, almost entirely of females. The strength of college field hockey reflects the impact of Title IX which mandated that colleges should fund men's and women's sports programmes comparably. In Nineteen Eighty-Four, George Orwell's novel set in a totalitarian London, main character Winston Smith initially dislikes Julia, the woman he comes to love, because of "the atmosphere of hockey-fields and cold baths and community hikes and general clean-mindedness which she managed to carry about with her.

Games played with curved sticks and a ball can be found in the histories of many cultures. In Egypt, 4000-year-old carvings feature teams with sticks and a projectile, hurling dates to before 1272 BC in Ireland, and there is a depiction from c.600 BC in Ancient Greece where the game may have been called keretizein or kerhtizein because it was played with a horn or horn-like stick(keras, ?????)[4] In Inner Mongolia, China, the Daur people have been playing beikou, a game similar to modern field hockey, for about 1,000 years.[5] Most evidence of hockey-like games during the Middle Ages is found in legislation concerning sports and games. Similar to Edward's proclamation was the Galway Statute enacted in Ireland in 1527, which banned certain types of ball games, including hockey. ...at no tyme to use ne occupye the horlinge of the litill balle with hockie stickes or staves, nor use no hande ball to play withoute walles, but only greate foote balle[6] By the 19th century, the various forms and divisions of historic games began to differentiate and coalesce into the individual sports defined today. Organizations dedicated to the codification of rules and regulations began to form, and national and international bodies sprung up to manage domestic and international competition. Ice hockey also evolved during this period as a derivative of field hockey adapted to the icy conditions of Canada and the northern United States.